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Austin Gomez
Austin Gomez

OP The Maze GUI \/\/TOP\\\\

Blockly allows web pages to include a visual code editor for any of Blockly's five supported programming languages, or your own. In Blockly Games, pictured here, users can solve a maze using Blockly's editor on the right.

OP The Maze GUI

The src/ subfolder contains your Python modules and packages for the maze solver project. The maze_solver package consists of several subpackages that group logically related code fragments, including:

When launched like this, the package reads the specified file with your maze. After solving the maze, it renders the solution into an SVG format embedded in a temporary HTML file. The file gets automatically opened in your default web browser. You can also run the same Python code using a shortcut command:

This maze is enclosed in a rectangle comprising a grid of square cells that form passages along straight lines. Therefore, paths in your maze will only be vertical or horizontal rather than diagonal or circular, for example, and each cell will be one unit wide. This will become important for calculating and comparing the distances later.

Well, mazes are a perfect example of graph theory in action. As it turns out, you can represent your maze with an undirected graph consisting of nodes and edges connecting them. Each node or vertex is where two or more paths intersect, while edges are the connections between those intersections:

Mathematically, a graph is nothing more than a set of nodes and edges, which you can lay out in any order and locations you like. Therefore, transforming the maze into a graph is an irreversible process resulting in losing some information about its visual features. At the same time, a graph is a remarkably convenient representation for finding the shortest path in the maze.

For the purpose of this tutorial, you can think of the maze as a rectangular grid of uniform squares arranged in rows and columns. Each square has the same width and height and a piece of border around it. Squares can additionally play specific roles in the maze to make it more interesting. For example, some of them can represent obstacles like walls or enemies, while others can represent rewards.

You take advantage of the iterable nature of the maze by iterating over it to find the maximum column and row index of its squares with the help of the max() function. Adding 1 to the highest index accounts for the zero-based numbering of tuple indices.

The benefit of calculating the maze size by hand is data consistency. If you supplied the width and height through two extra parameters in the class, then there would be no guarantee that the rows and columns would match up with the flat index. On the other hand, inferring the size from the squares avoids this potential problem.

The first function checks whether the .index property of each square fits into a continuous sequence of numbers that enumerates all the squares in the maze. The second function iterates over the rows and columns in the maze, ensuring that the .row and .column attributes of the corresponding square match up with the current row and column of the loops.

This sample maze has twelve squares, with ten unique border patterns, arranged in three rows and four columns. The entrance to the maze is located in the bottom-left corner, while the exit is in the first row, slightly to the right. The highlighted lines indicate both special squares.

In this step, you identified the building blocks of the maze and implemented them in Python. Now that you can build a maze, the next step for you will be to figure out how to display the maze in a graphical form like the one depicted above.

Drawing the maze can be fun on its own. However, your end goal is to solve even the most complex maze and render the shortest path from its entrance, through the corridors, to the maze exit. Finding the solution by eyeballing the maze may not always be feasible, but it should be a piece of cake for a computer program.

Coincidentally, this code resembles your Maze data type, which is also a data class with a .squares attribute defined as a tuple. Unlike in the maze implementation, however, this sequence is one-dimensional instead of representing rows and columns. Because of some similarities, though, you can make the Solution instances iterable and subscriptable, too, by implementing a few special methods:

Validation of a solution involves checking that its first square is the maze entrance, the last square is the exit, and every two consecutive squares belong to the same row or column. You can do this by using reduce() to check that each pair of squares align either horizontally or vertically. You call any() to assert that either of the two conditions is true.

Squares in the maze are very much like pixels in an image. One of the sample mazes included in the supporting materials has several hundred of them, but you could very easily be looking at thousands of squares in some of the larger mazes.

Each header field must have a known type, size, and offset measured in bytes since the beginning of the file so that you know where the next field begins. The maze file header will have the following three fields:

To quickly verify that the file was created, head over to the file manager in your operating system and look for the new file, which should be 25 bytes in size. The first 13 bytes are the header, followed by 12 bytes corresponding to the twelve squares in the maze.

The loading function is now named load_squares() to follow a consistent naming convention, and it returns an iterator of squares rather than a complete maze. Additionally, you simplified the other function, deserialize(), by turning it into a generator function, which returns a generator iterator of Square instances.

Make sure that you specify the right path to the file and run this code from a virtual environment that has your maze_solver package installed. Afterward, you should see the following maze on your screen:

This maze was assembled from satellite and aerial photos of a real-world labyrinth in Łeba on the Baltic sea, which can take as long as forty-five minutes to complete on foot! Can you find the way out of this maze by looking at the rendered preview above? While there are no enemies, the maze is still quite tricky!

Graphs are an important data structure in theoretical computer science, which often come up during code interviews. While you may use them sparingly in your day-to-day programming practice, graphs can help solve a variety of problems, like finding your way out of a maze.

Now that you have a representation for nodes and edges, you can start transforming your maze into a graph by first getting a collection of nodes from it. The simple way would be to turn all squares into nodes. However, capturing only intersections, corners, and dead ends as nodes can lead to a more efficient and accurate solution for solving mazes. You can identify these nodes by checking the role and border pattern of each square in the maze:

You look for the immediate neighbors of each node supplied to the function. In this case, you move east and south in the maze, but you could just as well follow the opposite directions, remembering to change the loop indexing and wall detection accordingly. You use the bitwise AND operator (&) to check if a border around the current square has either the right or bottom side, indicating a wall that terminates the search in that direction.

Okay. That was a fairly simple maze, but what about that giant labyrinth composed of hundreds of squares you saw before? Well, you can check it out for yourself by changing the file name to labyrinth.maze in the code snippet above. This should result in the image below:

One way to achieve such an effect is to turn your maze into a directed graph and tie the edge weights to their target nodes, scaled by some arbitrary bonus and penalty points.

The file uses the name-main idiom to protect the main() function from running if other modules import the package. It uses the argparse module to parse the file path, which is currently the only expected command-line argument. Later, you can add more if you want to, for example, allow for previewing mazes without a solution. Finally, the code finds, renders, and previews all the solutions of the loaded maze or prints an error message.

Every part of GNOME Shell has been designed to make it simple and easy to use. The Activities Overview is an easy way to access all your basic tasks. A press of a button is all it takes to view your open windows, launch applications, or check if you have new messages. Having everything in one place is convenient and means that you don't have to learn your way through a maze of different technologies.

In the previous posts we looked at how to emulate a CHIP-8 CPU with CommonLisp, and added a screen to see the results. This is enough for graphical demoslike maze.rom, but in this post we'll add user input so we can actually playgames.

The game from Genvid and Bandai Namco is officially exiting beta today and it has surpassed six million players during the beta period. It is a social adaptation of the arcade classic game that takes advantage of user-generated content in the form of player-created mazes.

The company announced Pac-Man Community Cares, a charitable initiative focused on giving back to gaming-related nonprofit organizations. The first PMC Cares project involved providing direct game development experience to a group of underserved youths from the New York Video Game Critics Circle making custom mazes.

Achievement categories include power pellets, ghosts, and fruits eaten, warp tunnels used, and mazes completed. And with AI companions, co-op mode players now have the option to start games instantly with AI-driven Pac-Man characters replacing one or more human teammates. 041b061a72


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